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  • Publication : 02 09 2018
  • Catégorie :La recherche médicale et génétique

Tips to Design Effective Splice-Switching Antisense Oligonucleotides for Exon Skipping and Exon Inclusion.    

Abstract
Antisense-mediated exon skipping and exon inclusion have proven to be powerful tools for treating neuromuscular diseases. The approval of Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) and Spinraza (nusinersen) for the treatment of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) was the most noteworthy accomplishment in 2016. Exon skipping uses short DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to correct the disrupted reading frame, allowing the production of functional quasi-dystrophin proteins, and ameliorate the progression of the disease. Exon inclusion for SMA employs an AON targeting an intronic splice silencer site to include an exon which is otherwise spliced out. Recently, these strategies have also been explored in many other genetic disorders, including dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy (e.g., Miyoshi myopathy; MM, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B; LGMD2B, and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset; DMAT), laminin ?2 chain (merosin)-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A), sarcoglycanopathy (e.g., limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C; LGMD2C), and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD). A major challenge in exon skipping and exon inclusion is the difficulty in designing effective AONs. The mechanism of mRNA splicing is highly complex, and the efficacy of AONs is often unpredictable. We will discuss the design of effective AONs for exon skipping and exon inclusion in this chapter.

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