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  • Publication : 19 08 2018
  • Catégorie :La recherche médicale et génétique

Preconditioning and Cellular Engineering to Increase the Survival of Transplanted Neural Stem Cells for Motor Neuron Disease Therapy.    

Abstract
Despite the extensive research effort that has been made in the field, motor neuron diseases, namely, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophies, still represent an overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exogenous neural stem cell-based transplantation approaches have been investigated as multifaceted strategies to both protect and repair upper and lower motor neurons from degeneration and inflammation. Transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) exert their beneficial effects not only through the replacement of damaged cells but also via bystander immunomodulatory and neurotrophic actions. Notwithstanding these promising findings, the clinical translatability of such techniques is jeopardized by the limited engraftment success and survival of transplanted cells within the hostile disease microenvironment. To overcome this obstacle, different methods to enhance graft survival, stability, and therapeutic potential have been developed, including environmental stress preconditioning, biopolymers scaffolds, and genetic engineering. In this review, we discuss current engineering techniques aimed at the exploitation of the migratory, proliferative, and secretive capacity of NSCs and their relevance for the therapeutic arsenal against motor neuron disorders and other neurological disorders.

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